Baker, P.M.A., Linden, M.A., LaForce, S. S., Rutledge, J., & Goughnour, K. P. (2018). Barriers to Employment Participation of Individuals With Disabilities: Addressing the Impact of Employer (Mis) Perception and Policy. American Behavioral Scientist, 0002764218768868.

Although progress has been made toward the objective of increased employment for people with disabilities, the 17.2% employment rate of people with disabilities stands in distressing contrast to the 65% rate of those without disabilities. This article summarizes the results of a comparative survey of representative academic literature and industry publications related to employer policies and practices that can affect workforce participation of individuals with disabilities. Emergent themes include variance in employer perspectives on hiring of individuals with disabilities, impact of perceived versus actual cost as a hiring barrier, and the perceived mismatch of education and/or skills to job qualifications among applicants with disabilities. These themes represent key areas to probe in subsequent research. The research objective is to identify focal points in the industry literature, representative of employer and industry (demand side) points of view that differ from those generally portrayed in the academic literature (more generally, supply side). Findings from a thematic analysis of industry publications can provide (1) evidenced based background to assist in crafting targeted policy to address employer awareness, (2) informed development of industry guidance on topics that may assist employers to achieve a more inclusive workplace, and (3) insights applicable to addressing barriers to broadening participation by technical, scientific, and engineering trained individuals with disabilities.


Kaplan, S., Moon, N., & Weiss, S. (2010). Baby Boomers are Turning Grey: The Americans with Disabilities Act and Aging Americans. Business Law Today. May/June 2010.

Baker, Paul M.A., and Christine Bellordre. (2003). "Factors Influencing Adoption of Wireless Technologies - Key Policy Issues, Barriers and Opportunities for People with Disabilities" Information Technology and Disabilities. Vol. IX No. 2, December 2003.

Ward, Andrew C., and Paul M.A. Baker. (2005). "Disabilities and Impairments: Strategies for Workplace Integration." Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 23(1):143-60.

Head, Lynzee, Paul M.A. Baker, Brad Bagwell and Nathan Moon. (2006). "Barriers to Evidence Based Practice in Accommodations for an Aging Workforce." WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation. 27(4).

Baker, Paul M.A., Moon, Nathan and Andrew C. Ward. (2006). "Virtual Exclusion and Telework: Barriers and Opportunities of Technocentric Workplace Accommodation Policy," WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation. 27(4).

Kaplan, Shelley, Sally Weiss, Nathan W. Moon, and Paul M.A. Baker. (2006). "A Framework for Providing Telecommuting as a Reasonable Accommodation: Some Considerations on a Comparative Case Study." WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation. 27(4).

Sabata, D., Williams, M., Milchus, K., Baker, P., and Sanford, J. A. (2008). "A Retrospective Analysis of Workplace Accommodations: Recommendations for Addressing Functional Limitations." Journal of Assistive Technology. 20 (1) April.

Baker, P.M.A. and Moon, N.W. (2008). "Wireless Technologies And Accessibility for People With Disabilities: Findings From A Policy Research Instrument," Journal of Assistive Technology. Vol. 20.3. Fall.

Ward, A., Baker, P.M.A. and Moon, N.W. (2009). "Ensuring the Enfranchisement of People With Disabilities," Journal of Disability Policy Studies. 20 (2): pp79-92.